Upregulated

Chronic Pain Central Sensitization & Patient Barriers To Physical Therapy

CF 316: Chronic Pain Central Sensitization & Patient Barriers To Physical Therapy Today we’re going to talk about Chronic Pain Central Sensitization & Patient Barriers To PT and, I would argue….chiropractic care. But first, here’s that sweet sweet bumper music    

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Integrating Chiropractors

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  OK, we are back and you have found the Chiropractic Forward Podcast where we are giving evidence-based chiropractic a little personality and making it profitable. We’re not the stuffy, elitist, pretentious kind of research. We’re research talk over a couple of beers. So grab you a bushel.  I’m Dr. Jeff Williams and I’m your host for the Chiropractic Forward podcast.  I’m so glad you’re spending your time with us learning together.  Chiropractors – I’m hiring at my personal clinic. I need talent, ambition, smarts, personality, and easy to get along with associates. If this is you and Amarillo, TX is your speed, send me an email at creekstonecare@gmail.com If you haven’t yet I have a few things you should do. 
  • Go to Amazon and check our my book called The Remarkable Truth About Chiropractic: A Unique Journey Into The Research. It’s excellent resource for you and is categorized into sections so the information is easy to find and written in a way that is easy to understand for everyone. It’s on Amazon. That’s the Remarkable Truth About Chiropractic by Jeff Williams. 
  • Like our Chiropractic Forward Facebook page, 
  • Join our private Chiropractic Forward Facebook group, and then 
  • Review our podcast on wherever you listen to it 
  • Last thing real quick, we also have an evidence-based brochure and poster store at chiropracticforward.com
You have found yourself smack dab in the middle of Episode #316 Now if you missed last week’s episode, we talked about The WHO’s Sources For Opinion On Spinal Manipulative Therapy (Part 6).  Make sure you don’t miss that info. Keep up with the class.  On the personal end of things….. Man, we’re going through some stuff at the office recently and it centers around collections. Remember when I said last week that practice is a big long game of whack-a-mole? Well, it’s a fact and what I’m currently dealing with is really a ‘death by a thousand cuts’ type of scenario with one glaringly large issue.  The bright neon sign issue right now is collections. We are billing appropriately but the checks aren’t showing up. We’ve had such a struggle with in-house billing in the past. We lost hundreds of thousands on that years ago so we’ve moved to off-site billers. We are now on our 4th, I believe.  I think we’re in the right spot with this one. However, in the transition, our collections have taken a nose dive and I mean a nose dive. As in, if we billed out $70k+, we had a collections of $28k. Right. Now, carry that out over 3 months with that kind of deficit, your resources that are meant to cover issues start to vanish fairly rapidly.  Remember, I have an overhead of $55k-$60k/month. I remember when I was younger and newer in practice. At the time, my overhead was about $25k. I was talking to an older chiro buddy of mine at a TX Chiro Assoc event and he told me his overhead was $45k/month. And he wasn’t integrated either. It blew me away. I couldn’t imagine having an overhead that high.  And…..well here we are. With 4 full time employees, a full-time NP, an acupuncturist, and 2 massage therapists…..it just sort of happens. All of the medical supplies….holy cow. That’s a pretty penny, folks. Massage supplies, acupuncture needles, 4,000 sq ft. Office, utilities…you get the point. It adds up fast and if you’re not cognizant of what’s up, it’ll get out of hand on you. That’s why I balance my own bank account each month. I know what’s coming in and what’s going out.  It’s why I know that we have a collections issue.  Remember we have death by a thousand cuts, right? Well, other issues of late are that we aren’t performing and charging for codes we could be. We’re letting cold laser patients walk out the door without doing laser. We’re letting exercise patients exit the building without doing their exerrcises. This is happening with patients that are covered under PI or on their insurance plan for rehab.  That’s just a training issue and we’re whacking that mole currently.  Another issue is that we’re still recovering from COVID on some level. In 2019, I had 220 more new patients over the course of that year than I had in 2023. What the hell? So, we’re whacking that mole by ramping up some marketing and website SEO efforts.  I have a call with the collection company today at lunch and I have addressed the other issues. Now, if we can get it happening on the collections, you’ll get to hear happy Jeff in future episodes. Yay!! Why do I share this stuff with you? I like to think this is not just a research article podcast. This is real life. If you know the struggles I’m dealing with and the successes I’m enjoying, you’re either going through the same and can learn, or you WILL be going through the same and can learn from my experiences.  Even when you’re riding the wave of success, things can short circuit and you have to always be paying attention so that you can catch it as quickly as possible so you can avoid disaster. After years of not having to give finances much consideration at all, it’s time to lean on some folks that owe the clinic money, lean on our biller a bit, get ourselves in order, and market.  Easy peasy right? I’ll keep you posted on our progress. Don’t cry for me, Argentina! You’ll be mad at me soon because I’ll be back to seeing 70+ new patients per month. Wait for it. When you’ve got my attention, you’ve got my attention and I have a tendency to really lean in and get focused. That’s where we are right now. While I don’t recommend it, it is a bit exhilerating. I’ll admit.  Item #1 Our first one today is called, “Nociplastic pain and central sensitization in patients with chronic pain conditions: a terminology update for clinicians” by Nijs et. Al. published in Brazillian Journal of Physical Therapy in May of 2023 and that’s hot enough! Remember, the citations can be found at chiropractscforward.com under this episode.  Nijs J, Malfliet A, Nishigami T. Nociplastic pain and central sensitization in patients with chronic pain conditions: a terminology update for clinicians. Braz J Phys Ther. 2023 May-Jun;27(3):100518. doi: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2023.100518. Epub 2023 Jun 14. PMID: 37348359; PMCID: PMC10314229. Why They Did It Acute pain has been tremendously beneficial throughout evolution as it enables us to identify potential harmful stimuli, and as it ensures we protect damaged tissue while it heals.  However, once evolved into a chronic state, its protective role diminishes with a wide range of negative and maladaptive sequelae that massively impact both the individual and society.  Neuroscientific research has significantly advanced our understanding about pain and chronic pain in particular, including the role of central (nervous system) sensitization in the generation and amplification of (persistent) pain experiences. This knowledge innovation created a massive implementation potential but also a challenge for clinicians to remain up-to-date in daily practice.  Particularly the variety of and rapid change in concepts and terminology used can be challenging for clinicians. For these reasons, this second part of the comprehensive pain management editorial series1 provides a terminology update regarding central sensitization and nociplastic pain in a clinically applicable way.  Essentially, central sensitization is the major underlying mechanism of nociplastic pain, which is a pain phenotype. To facilitate the understanding of the concept of central sensitization, it is crucial to understand that central sensitization is a homeostatic mechanism. This implies, similar to inflammation, that central sensitization is adaptive in the short term (e.g., in the days following surgery or following a motor vehicle accident). As such, it avoids further deterioration in acute pain situations.  However, central sensitization becomes maladaptive in the long term, with pain losing its protective value as commonly seen in patients with persistent pain (e.g., months after successful surgery or a motor vehicle accident).  In addition, central sensitization and inflammation – although physiologically very divert mechanisms – share many features, including the notion that multiple biomarkers together rather than a single gold standard are required for assuming its presence, the fact that they are both umbrella terms covering various clinical & biological presentations, that their clinical presentation varies substantially from patient to patient, and that they are both key mechanism in a wide variety of clinical conditions/diseases The presence of clinical features of central sensitization predicts poor treatment outcomes in patients with a variety of chronic pain conditions, at least when the treatment targets local tissues as the presumed source of nociception.  This applies to conservative interventions, but also to surgical interventions. These observations illustrate the need for early recognition of central sensitization in patients with chronic pain, in combination with tailored treatment. Item #2 Our last one today is called, “Patient-related barriers and enablers to the implementation of high-value physiotherapy for chronic pain: a systematic review”’ by Dickson et. Al. and published in Pain Medicine in February 2024 and that one’ll burn your damn eye brows off.  Cameron Dickson, Rutger M J de Zoete, Carolyn Berryman, Philip Weinstein, Kexun Kenneth Chen, Paul Rothmore, Patient-related barriers and enablers to the implementation of high-value physiotherapy for chronic pain: a systematic review, Pain Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 2, February 2024, Pages 104–115, https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnad134 Why They Did It To identify and synthesize patient-related barriers to… and enablers of ….the implementation of high-value physiotherapy (HVP) for chronic pain.  Furthermore, to review what patient-related interventions have been used to facilitate the implementation of high-value physiotherapy for chronic pain, as well as their efficacy. How They Did It The authors systematically searched the APA PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, and PEDro databases for peer-reviewed studies (published in English) of adults with chronic pain.  They used the Theoretical Domains Framework of behavior change to synthesize identified themes relating to barriers and enablers. Outcomes from studies reporting on interventions were also qualitatively synthesized. What They Found
  • Fourteen studies reported on barriers and enablers, 8 of which related to exercise adherence. 
  • Themes common to barriers and enablers included perceived efficacy of treatment, interrelationship with the physiotherapist, exercise burden, and the patient’s understanding of exercise benefits. 
  • Other barriers included fear of movement, fragmented care, and cost. 
  • Ten studies explored interventions, 9 of which aimed to improve exercise adherence. 
  • Of these, evidence from 4 randomized controlled trials of technology-based interventions demonstrated improved exercise adherence among intervention groups compared with controls.
Wrap It Up
  • Patients with chronic pain experience barriers to high value PT, including their beliefs, the nature of their interaction with their physiotherapist, perceived treatment efficacy, and cost. 
  • Enablers include rapport with their physiotherapist, achievable exercises, and seamless cost-effective care. 
  • Technology-based interventions have demonstrated effectiveness at increasing exercise adherence. 
  • Our findings suggest that interventions seeking to enhance implementation of high value PT, need to consider the multifactorial barriers experienced by patients with chronic pain.
Alright, that’s it. Keep on keepin’ on. Keep changing our profession from your corner of the world. The world needs evidence-based, patient-centered practitioners driving the bus. The profession needs us in the ACA and involved in leadership of state associations. So quit griping about the profession if you’re doing nothing to make it better. Get active, get involved, and make it happen. Let’s get to the message. Same as it is every week.  Store Remember the evidence-informed brochures and posters at chiropracticforward.com.       

Purchase Dr. Williams’s book, a perfect educational tool and chiropractic research reference for the daily practitioner, from the Amazon store TODAY!

Chiropractic evidence-based products

Integrating Chiropractors

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    The Message I want you to know with absolute certainty that when Chiropractic is at its best, you can’t beat the risk vs reward ratio because spinal pain is primarily a movement-related pain and typically responds better to movement-related treatment rather than chemical treatments like pills and shots. When compared to the traditional medical model, research and clinical experience show us patients can get good to excellent results for headaches, neck pain, back pain, and joint pain to name just a few. It’s safe and cost-effective can decrease surgeries & disability and we do it through conservative, non-surgical means with minimal hassle to the patient. And, if the patient treats preventatively after initial recovery, we can usually keep it that way while raising the overall level of health! Key Point: At the end of the day, patients should have the guarantee of having the best treatment that offers the least harm. When it comes to non-complicated musculoskeletal complaints…. That’s Chiropractic! Contact Send us an email at dr dot williams at chiropracticforward.com and let us know what you think of our show and tell us your suggestions for future episodes.  Feedback and constructive criticism is a blessing and so are subscribes and excellent reviews on podcast platforms.  We know how this works by now. If you value something, you have to share it, interact with it, review it, talk about it from time to time, and actively hit a few buttons to support it here and there when asked. It really does make a big difference.  Connect We can’t wait to connect with you again next week. From the Chiropractic Forward Podcast flight deck, this is Dr. Jeff Williams saying upward, onward, and forward. Website
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Social Media Links https://www.facebook.com/chiropracticforward/ Chiropractic Forward Podcast Facebook GROUP https://www.facebook.com/groups/1938461399501889/ Twitter YouTube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtc-IrhlK19hWlhaOGld76Q iTunes https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing/id1331554445?mt=2 Player FM Link https://player.fm/series/2291021 Stitcher: https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing-through TuneIn https://tunein.com/podcasts/Health–Wellness-Podcasts/The-Chiropractic-Forward-Podcast-Chiropractors-Pr-p1089415/ About the Author & Host Dr. Jeff Williams – Fellow of the International Academy of Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine (FIANM) and Board Certified Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Professionals (DABFP) – Chiropractor in Amarillo, TX, Chiropractic Advocate, Author, Entrepreneur, Educator, Businessman, Marketer, and Healthcare Blogger & Vlogger

Upregulated Central Nervous System & Shared Decision Making With The Patient

CF 245: Upregulated Central Nervous System & Shared Decision Making With The Patient Today we’re going to talk about Upregulated Central Nervous System & Shared Decision Making With The Patient. But first, here’s that sweet sweet bumper music  

Purchase Dr. Williams’s book, a perfect educational tool and chiropractic research reference for the daily practitioner, from the Amazon store TODAY!

Chiropractic evidence-based products

Integrating Chiropractors

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OK, we are back and you have found the Chiropractic Forward Podcast where we are making evidence-based chiropractic fun, profitable, and accessible while we make you and your patients better all the way around.  We’re the fun kind of research. Not the stuffy, high-brow, look down your nose at people kind of research. We’re research talk over a couple of beers. I’m Dr. Jeff Williams and I’m your host for the Chiropractic Forward podcast.   If you haven’t yet I have a few things you should do. 

  • Go to Amazon and check our my book called The Remarkable Truth About Chiropractic: A Unique Journey Into The Research. It’s an excellent educational resource for you AND your patients. It saves you time putting talks together or just staying current on research. It’s categorized into sections so the information is easy to find and written in a way that is easy to understand for everyone. It’s on Amazon. That’s the Remarkable Truth About Chiropractic by Jeff Williams. 
  • Then go Like our Chiropractic Forward Facebook page, 
  • Join our private Chiropractic Forward Facebook group, and then 
  • Review our podcast on whatever platform you’re listening to 
  • Last thing real quick, we also have an evidence-based brochure and poster store at chiropracticforward.com

You have found yourself smack dab in the middle of Episode #245 Now if you missed last week’s episode , we talked about Recognizing Cervical Artery Dissection. Make sure you don’t miss that info. Keep up with the class. 

On the personal end of things…..

Things are clicking along pretty normally for a chaotic clinic. Today, let’s talk a little about your relationships with your employees before we get to the research.  Everyone has different styles of owning or managing their clinics and staff. Mine has always been to treat them like family. Honestly, we spend more time with our staff than we do with our own families. So why not have friendly and almost family-like relationships with them? Why the hell not? I don’t want awkward forced relationships with the people I’m with every day all day. I want fun, happy, and friendly relationships. With people I look forward to seeing every day. 

My staff is hilarious and we have a lot of fun together. 

I’ll give you a little story as an example. My office manager is getting married in September. Probably about the time this episode goes live. She had her wedding shower on August 13th at her mother’s house. It wasn’t the regular boring old wedding shower. They had drinks, men and women, cornhole, and beer pong in the back yard…..you get the picture. Pretty much my entire staff of 12 or 13 was there. Which is nice. They feel like family to an extent. That’ll warm your heart, right? Well, I’m of the age that beer pong wasn’t ‘a thing’ in my college years. We played simple games like quarters or something like that. Anyway, I went to the wedding shower. My wife actually helped host it and run it all. She made a huge table full of charcuterie items and it was just all very well done. 

So that’s point #1; she felt close enough to us to not only want us at her wedding shower but to have my wife help host it.  Then, after gifts were opened and a few filtered out, everyone moved to the backyard and played cornhole and beer pong. My office manager made me be her teammate for a game of beer pong. Now, I told her I can’t play with drinks because I was driving so I just sipped on one beer while we played.  Turns out, I actually have a little talent for beer pong. We won the first game against her fiancee and Boom! Instant respectability amongst the kiddos. 

So, point #2; when your staff likes you and wants you to participate in aspects of their personal life, I say you just do it.  You build friendship, loyalty, camaraderie, and trust the more you just say, “Yes.” Play beer pong. Even when you don’t want to or don’t know how to play it. It’ll pay off in the long run.  If you feel differently, let me know. Send me an email at dr.williams@chiropracticforward.com I want your opinion so I can share with the collective. 

OK, on to the research. 

 

Item #1

Our first one is called “Does shared decision making results in better health related outcomes for individuals with painful musculoskeletal disorders? A systematic review” by Christopher et. al. (Yannick Tousignant-Laflamme 2017) published in the Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy in 2017. 

Why They Did It

Shared Decision-Making (SDM) is a dynamic process by which the health care professional and the patient influence each other in making health-related choices or decisions. SDM is strongly embedded in today’s health care approaches and is advocated as an ideal model since it renders individuals more control over the health care they choose to receive, and has been shown to improve patient outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to investigate the added value of SDM on clinical health-related outcomes in patients with a variety of musculoskeletal conditions.

How They Did It

PubMed and CINAHL. To be considered for review, the study had to meet all the following criteria: (1) prospective studies that involved treatment decision-making;  (2) randomized controlled trial design;  (3) involving patients faced with having to make a treatment decision;  (4) comparing SDM with a control intervention and  (5) including one or more of the following outcome measures: well-being, costs, health-related pain or disability measures, or quality of life.

What They Found

We did not find a single study that looked at the true effect of SDM on patient-reported outcomes in a population with musculoskeletal pain.

Wrap It Up

For the management of painful musculoskeletal conditions, in the light of the current evidence (none), we estimate that it would be wise to explore the effectiveness of SDM before forcing its large-scale implementation in rehabilitation. Before getting to the next one, I have to tell you, Dr. Chris Howson, the inventor of the Drop Release tool re-activated the code! Use the code HOTSTUFF upon purchase at droprelease.com & get $50 off your purchase. Would you like to spend 5-10 minutes doing pin and stretch and all of that? Or would you rather use a drop release to get the same or similar results in just a handful of seconds. I love it, my patients love it, and I know yours will too. droprelease.com and the discount code is HOTSTUFF. Go do it.

Item #2

The last one is called, “Mechanisms of chronic pain – key considerations for appropriate physical therapy management” by Courtney et. al. (Carol A. Courtney 2017) and published in the Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy in March of 2017.  Rather than a full-blown research project, this one is more of an informational article with some future direction. 

They say the following: “In the last decades, knowledge of nociceptive pain mechanisms has expanded rapidly. The use of quantitative sensory testing has provided evidence that peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms play a relevant role in localized and widespread chronic pain syndromes.  In fact, almost any patient suffering from a chronic pain condition will demonstrate impairments in the central nervous system. In addition, it is accepted that pain is associated with different types of trigger factors including social, physiological, and psychological.  This rationale has provoked a change in the understanding of potential mechanisms of manual therapies, changing from a biomechanical/medical viewpoint, to a neurophysiological/nociceptive viewpoint. 

Therefore, interventions for patients with chronic pain should be applied based on current knowledge of nociceptive mechanisms since determining potential drivers of the sensitization process is critical for effective management.  The current paper reviews mechanisms of chronic pain from a clinical and neurophysiological point of view and summarizes key messages for clinicians for proper management of individuals with chronic pain.”

Now, I don’t know exactly where you’ve been hearing this since 2019. Oh, wait, yes I do. Here!

 

You’ve been hearing it here and research is catching up.  I didn’t invent this stuff, of course. And I’m no smarter than everyone else. I just happened to take the course for the Diplomate of the International Academy of Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine and was taught by Drs. Anthony Nicholson and Matthew Long in that course and THEY are on the cutting edge.  They are the reason I’ve been preaching this stuff for so long now. They’re the reason my patients get better at the rate they do. 

Alright, that’s it. Keep on keepin’ on. Keep changing our profession from your corner of the world. The world needs evidence-based, patient-centered practitioners driving the bus. The profession needs us in the ACA and involved in leadership of state associations. So quit griping about the profession if you’re doing nothing to make it better. Get active, get involved, and make it happen. Let’s get to the message. Same as it is every week. 

Store Remember the evidence-informed brochures and posters at chiropracticforward.com.   

Purchase Dr. Williams’s book, a perfect educational tool and chiropractic research reference for the daily practitioner, from the Amazon store TODAY!

Chiropractic evidence-based products

Integrating Chiropractors

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The Message

I want you to know with absolute certainty that when Chiropractic is at its best, you can’t beat the risk vs reward ratio because spinal pain is primarily a movement-related pain and typically responds better to movement-related treatment rather than chemical treatments like pills and shots. When compared to the traditional medical model, research and clinical experience show us patients can get good to excellent results for headaches, neck pain, back pain, and joint pain to name just a few. It’s safe and cost-effective can decrease surgeries & disability and we do it through conservative, non-surgical means with minimal hassle to the patient. And, if the patient treats preventatively after initial recovery, we can usually keep it that way while raising the overall level of health!

Key Point:

At the end of the day, patients should have the guarantee of having the best treatment that offers the least harm. When it comes to non-complicated musculoskeletal complaints…. That’s Chiropractic!

Contact

Send us an email at dr dot williams at chiropracticforward.com and let us know what you think of our show and tell us your suggestions for future episodes.  Feedback and constructive criticism is a blessing and so are subscribes and excellent reviews on podcast platforms.  We know how this works by now. If you value something, you have to share it, interact with it, review it, talk about it from time to time, and actively hit a few buttons to support it here and there when asked. It really does make a big difference. 

Connect

We can’t wait to connect with you again next week. From the Chiropractic Forward Podcast flight deck, this is Dr. Jeff Williams saying upward, onward, and forward.

Website https://www.chiropracticforward.com

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Stitcher: https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing-through

TuneIn https://tunein.com/podcasts/Health–Wellness-Podcasts/The-Chiropractic-Forward-Podcast-Chiropractors-Pr-p1089415/

About the Author & Host Dr. Jeff Williams – Fellow of the International Academy of Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine (FIANM) and Board Certified Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Professionals (DABFP) – Chiropractor in Amarillo, TX, Chiropractic Advocate, Author, Entrepreneur, Educator, Businessman, Marketer, and Healthcare Blogger & Vlogger  

Bibliography

Carol A. Courtney, C. F.-d.-l.-P. S. B. (2017). “Mechanisms of chronic pain – key considerations for appropriate physical therapy management.” Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 25(3): 118-127.  

Yannick Tousignant-Laflamme, S. C., Derek Clewley, Leila Ledbetter, Christian Jaeger Cook & Chad E Cook, (2017). “Does shared decision making results in better health related outcomes for individuals with painful musculoskeletal disorders? A systematic review.” Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 25(3): 144-150.