cannabinoids

High Impact Chronic Pain & Cannabinoids – What’s The Latest?

CF 185: High Impact Chronic Pain & Cannabinoids – What’s The Latest? Today we’re going to talk about…. But first, here’s that sweet sweet bumper music

Purchase Dr. Williams book, a perfect educational tool and chiropractic research reference for the daily practitioner, from the Amazon store TODAY!

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B096RST3WW

 

 

Chiropractic evidence-based products

Integrating Chiropractors

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OK, we are back and you have found the Chiropractic Forward Podcast where we are making evidence-based chiropractic fun, profitable, and accessible while we make you and your patients better all the way around.  We’re the fun kind of research. Not the stuffy, high-brow kind of research. We’re research talk over a couple of beers. I’m Dr. Jeff Williams and I’m your host for the Chiropractic Forward podcast.   If you haven’t yet I have a few things you should do. 

  • Like our Facebook page, 
  • Join our private Facebook group and interact, and then 
  • go review our podcast on iTunes and other podcast platforms. 
  • We also have an evidence-based brochure and poster store at chiropracticforward.com
  • While you’re there, join our weekly email newsletter. 

You have found yourself smack dab in the middle of Episode #185 Now if you missed last week’s episode , we talked about predicting frailty and we talked about a 30-year study on disc degeneration. Fascinating stuff as always. Make sure you don’t miss that info.  Keep up with the class. 

On the personal end of things…..

This is the season of big. Big stuff happening these days.  I have some cool stuff on the horizon in 2022 I’m looking forward to. It looks like I’ll be joining a high-level group of doctors that’ll be meeting virtually throughout the year and in-person 4 times a year to get the best, most current evidence-based guidelines and to solve each others’ biggest practice issues. More information to follow but I can’t emphasize how pumped I am to get that rolling. The worst part is that I have to wait until 2022.

But honestly, that’ll be here before we know it. If you’ve been following along lately, we are going through this Nurse Practitioner medical integration and our NP starts here in our clinic on August second.

That’s more than HUGE!

I released my first book on June 8th called ‘The Remarkable Truth About Chiropractic: A Unique Journey Into The Research’ which is live and for sale on Amazon and from my website at www.chiropracticforward.com as we speak  It’s a hell of a good reference for practitioners and content creators. It has mostly current research divided into sections for quick reference and it’s some of the most impactful and significant research you’ll find for our profession. Go get a copy. Then we have an intern coming from Parker University to hang out with us through the Fall semester. That’s a first for me. We’ll see how it goes. He seems like a great dude with a cool little family. It should be a good deal.

We also have a trip coming up to Washington DC at the end of August, the TCA. Reds me to put together an hour-long presentation on research for their Leadership Conference, and some friends just asked me to officiate their wedding vow renewal.  So, how’s your Summer going? In terms of numbers, I’m frustrated. I hear Chiros telling me how they’re right back where they were and all that good stuff. Not me. I’m still at about 140 a week right now. I averaged 185 a week before the Rona jacked everything up.  If you had any big breakthroughs as far as getting people to return, email us at [email protected]  and I’ll share in the next podcast. Maybe we can help all of our listeners get back to where they were. 

It sure can’t hurt. I know that. Takers eat well but givers sleep well. Be a giver and I’ll help spread the word.

Item #1

The first one today was spurred because of a question that popped up in our private Facebook group last week. I posted an article I wrote that I give to all of my chronic pain patients in my clinic. It’s basically a dive into chronic pain and the current thinking.  In the article, there is a mention of how pain pathways that are laid down become permanent. One of the questions by a group member was that, if it’s true that the pathways are permanent, then doesn’t that go contrary to the idea of neuroplasticity.

If you don’t know what that is, that’s the ability of our central nervous system to adapt to new normals or adapt to training and to change and function in ways that overcome certain challenges.  So if we have neuroplasticity, how can pathways be permanent, basically. 

What a great question. I hadn’t considered this before. After thinking on it a bit, my response was, “Can’t we have neuroplasticity yet still permanent pathways that give us a tendency toward chronic pain? You can have all kinds of neuroplasticity (thank God) but won’t the CNS still store the information/memory/etc? I went on to add that, “I believe that’s the thinking behind the original teaching.

Dr. James Lehman also describes ‘high impact chronic pain’. These are essentially people who tend to have chronic pain forever and can only control it through periodic treatment/therapy. That would also imply that neuroplasticity is complicated and may have its limitations. Something that we can definite leverage in our favor, but not a cure all?” So, following my comments, Dr. Lehman shared this research article focusing in on High Impact Chronic Pain.

Thank you to Dr. Lehman for the research citation and thank you to Nathan for an excellent question.  If you’re not in our Chiropractic Forward Facebook group, go do that.  IT’s called, “Prevalence and Profile of High-Impact Chronic Pain in the United States” by Pitcher et. al. (Pitcher MH 2019) and published in the Journal of Pain in February of 2019…..it’s a little steamy but not quite hot enough for my beloved sound bite. Damnit. 

Why They Did It

They say, “The multidimensional nature of chronic pain is not reflected by definitions based solely on pain duration, resulting in high prevalence estimates limiting effective policy development.  The newly proposed concept of high-impact chronic pain incorporates both disability and pain duration to identify a more severely impacted portion of the chronic pain population yet remains uncharacterized at the population level.” So it’s basically chronic pain AND disability rather than just chronic pain. 

How They Did It

As such, we used the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (N = 15,670) to 

  1. assess the likelihood of disability in the overall chronic pain population, 
  2. estimate the prevalence of High-Impact Chronic Pain, and 
  3. characterize the disability, health status, and health care use profile of this population in the United States.

What They Found

  • Overall, chronic pain, defined as pain experienced on most days or every day in the previous 3 months, was strongly associated with an increased risk of disability after controlling for other chronic health conditions
  • disability was more likely in those with chronic pain than in those with stroke or kidney failure, among others.
  • High-Impact Chronic Pain affected 4.8% of the U.S. adult population, or approximately 10.6 million individuals, in 2011.
  • The High-Impact Chronic Pain population reported more severe pain and more mental health and cognitive impairments than persons with chronic pain without disability, and was also more likely to report worsening health, more difficulty with self-care, and greater health care use.

Wrap It Up

High-Impact Chronic Pain clearly represents a more severely impacted portion of the chronic pain population. Understanding this heterogeneity will contribute to developing more effective legislation promoting safe and cost-effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic pain.  PERSPECTIVE: High-Impact Chronic Pain is a powerful new classification that differentiates those with debilitating chronic pain from those with less impactful chronic pain. By addressing the multidimensionality of chronic pain, this classification will improve clinical practice, research, and the development of effective health policy.

 

CHIROUP ADVERTISEMENT

 

Item #2

OK, I’m about to be uncool…..I get it. Unless you happen to be in pain and benefit from it, I’m about to take a recently unpopular stance here. Old buy coming through. But I’m Gen X so don’t pull that, ‘OK, Boomer,’ BS on me. It’s powerless against the forces of research so don’t even try it.  Look, admit that you can’t follow only the research you like that confirms your biases and ignore and discount only the ones you don’t like that fly in the face of your beliefs or preferences. 

Let’s be clear, if opioids are the only thing that can possibly help with pain, why wouldn’t we use that. It’s a tool, albeit a dangerous one, but a tool we have at our disposal. The same goes for cannabinoids. I support it being used for medical purposes 100%.

So don’t misunderstand. What I cannot get behind is its recreational use. I never understood why folks need to have a completely altered reality by partaking in drug use, really of any kind, all day every day. Now, I get it….some folks have had awful experiences. It calms them. Helps them deal with it. Some have sleeping or anxiety disorders. I get it. And let’s be clear, I like to drink beer on the weekends here and there and I partake in some shots as well too. That’s definitely some altered reality but it’s few and far between. 

I’m talking about the wake and bakes that just have a normal life but they like it so they do it every day? I’m a no on this. You’ll never convince me that inhaling smoke of any kind daily is healthy, good for you, productive, or conducive to a better life long-term. You can’t do it. Because it’s not possible.  Not only that, but you are influencing your children when they go to copying your behavior.  So…..here I go being uncool.  This one is called “Association of Cannabis Use During Adolescence With Neurodevelopment” by Albaugh et. al. (Albaugh MD 2021) and published in JAMA Psychiatry on June 16, of 2021 a smoking steamy plate of Shazam. 

Why They Did It

The authors wanted to answer the question, “To what extent is cannabis use associated with magnetic resonance imaging–measured cerebral cortical thickness development during adolescence?”

What They Found

  • In this cohort study, linear mixed-effects model analysis using 1598 magnetic resonance images from 799 participants revealed that cannabis use was associated with accelerated age-related cortical thinning from 14 to 19 years of age in predominantly prefrontal regions.
  • The spatial pattern of cannabis-related cortical thinning was significantly associated with a positron emission tomography–assessed map of cannabinoid 1 receptor availability.

Wrap It Up

Results suggest that cannabis use during middle to late adolescence may be associated with altered cerebral cortical development, particularly in regions rich in cannabinoid 1 receptors.

 

Item #3

I’m just going to drive the depths of my uncool-ness to new depths here, folks. Don’t mind me.  This one is called, “Associations of Suicidality Trends With Cannabis Use as a Function of Sex and Depression Status” by Han et. al. (Han B 2021) and published in JAMA Psychiatry on June 22, 2021. Ouchy wa wa. 

Why They Did It

During the past decade, cannabis use among US adults has increased markedly, with a parallel increase in suicidality (ideation, plan, attempt, and death). However, associations between cannabis use and suicidality among young adults are poorly understood. The authors wanted to answer the question, “Are there associations between cannabis use and suicidality trends in young adults, and do they vary as a function of sex and depression?”

How They Did It

They examined 281 650 adult participants in the 2008-2019 National Surveys of Drug Use and Health data

What They Found

Past-year suicidal ideation and plan along with daily cannabis use increased among all examined sociodemographic subgroups (except daily cannabis use among current high-school students), and past-year suicide attempt increased among most subgroups. 

Wrap It Up

From 2008 to 2019, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt increased 40% to 60% over increases ascribed to cannabis use and major depressive episode. Future research is needed to examine this increase in suicidality and to determine whether it is due to cannabis use or overlapping risk factors. Alright, that’s it. I’ll try to be cooler next week. In fact, I KNOW I’ll be cooler next week because we have the amazing Dr. Brett Winchester coming up as a guest so don’t miss him. He’s on the top of the mountain. Let’s find out how he got there, shall we? Y’all be safe. Keep changing our profession from your little corner of the world. Keep taking care of yourselves and everyone around you. Tough times are upon us but, the sun will shine again. Trust it, believe it, count on it. Let’s get to the message. Same as it is every week. 

Store

Remember the evidence-informed brochures and posters at chiropracticforward.com. 

Purchase Dr. Williams book, a perfect educational tool and chiropractic research reference for the daily practitioner, from the Amazon store TODAY!

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B096RST3WW

Chiropractic evidence-based products

Integrating Chiropractors

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The Message

I want you to know with absolute certainty that when Chiropractic is at its best, you can’t beat the risk vs reward ratio because spinal pain is primarily a movement-related pain and typically responds better to movement-related treatment rather than chemical treatments like pills and shots. When compared to the traditional medical model, research and clinical experience show us patients can get good to excellent results for headaches, neck pain, back pain, and joint pain to name just a few. It’s safe and cost-effective can decrease surgeries & disability and we do it through conservative, non-surgical means with minimal hassle to the patient. And, if the patient treats preventatively after initial recovery, we can usually keep it that way while raising the overall level of health!

Key Point:

At the end of the day, patients should have the guarantee of having the best treatment that offers the least harm. When it comes to non-complicated musculoskeletal complaints…. That’s Chiropractic!

Contact

Send us an email at dr dot williams at chiropracticforward.com and let us know what you think of our show and tell us your suggestions for future episodes.  Feedback and constructive criticism is a blessing and so are subscribes and excellent reviews on podcast platforms.  We know how this works by now. If you value something, you have to share it, interact with it, review it, talk about it from time to time, and actively hit a few buttons to support it here and there when asked. It really does make a big difference. 

Connect

We can’t wait to connect with you again next week. From the Chiropractic Forward Podcast flight deck, this is Dr. Jeff Williams saying upward, onward, and forward.

Website https://www.chiropracticforward.com

Social Media Links https://www.facebook.com/chiropracticforward/

Chiropractic Forward Podcast Facebook GROUP https://www.facebook.com/groups/1938461399501889/

Twitter https://twitter.com/Chiro_Forward

YouTube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtc-IrhlK19hWlhaOGld76Q iTunes https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing/id1331554445?mt=2

Player FM Link https://player.fm/series/2291021

Stitcher: https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing-through

TuneIn https://tunein.com/podcasts/Health–Wellness-Podcasts/The-Chiropractic-Forward-Podcast-Chiropractors-Pr-p1089415/

About the Author & Host Dr. Jeff Williams – Fellow of the International Academy of Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine – Chiropractor in Amarillo, TX, Chiropractic Advocate, Author, Entrepreneur, Educator, Businessman, Marketer, and Healthcare Blogger & Vlogger  

Bibliography

  • Albaugh MD, O.-G. J., Sidwell A, (2021). “Association of Cannabis Use During Adolescence With Neurodevelopment.” JAMA Psychiatry.
  • Han B, C. W., Einstein EB, Volkow ND, (2021). “Associations of Suicidality Trends With Cannabis Use as a Function of Sex and Depression Status.” JAMA Netw Open 4(6): e2113025.
  • Pitcher MH, V. K. M., Bushnell MC, Porter L., (2019). “Prevalence and Profile of High-Impact Chronic Pain in the United States.” J Pain 20(2): 146-160.

 

Vegans & Broken Bones, Daily Step Count, Medical Cannabis

CF 155: Vegans & Broken Bones, Daily Step Count, Medical Cannabis

Today we’re going to talk about new research for vegans and the risk of broken bones, we’ll cover new information pertaining to a patient’s daily step count, and we’ll talk about a study on medical cannabis and it’s effectiveness in treating chronic pain. Good stuff today, folks.  But first, here’s that sweet sweet bumper music

Chiropractic evidence-based products

Integrating Chiropractors

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OK, we are back and you have found the Chiropractic Forward Podcast where we are making evidence-based chiropractic fun, profitable, and accessible while we make you and your patients better all the way around.  We’re the fun kind of research. Not the stuffy, high-brow kind of research. We’re research talk over a couple of beers. I’m Dr. Jeff Williams and I’m your host for the Chiropractic Forward podcast.   If you haven’t yet I have a few things you should do. 

  • Like our Facebook page, 
  • Join our private Facebook group and interact, and then 
  • go review our podcast on iTunes and other podcast platforms. 
  • We also have an evidence-based brochure and poster store at chiropracticforward.com
  • While you’re there, join our weekly email newsletter. 

You have found yourself smack dab in the middle of Episode #155 Now if you missed last week’s episode , we talked about the shake up with the World Federation of Chiropractic and all of the goings on that went on with that. Make sure you don’t miss that info. Keep up with the class. 

On the personal end of things…..

As of the typing of this, it is the Monday following Thanksgiving. I hope you all had a good one. I have a nice back patio, outdoor kitchen area with a fireplace and quite a bit of room to move around.  I have my mom and my stepdad over as well as my brother and his wife. With the four of my regular crew, that made 8 of us. Nobody went inside. We all just gathered outside on the patio and ate outside. It was great. It was safe. And we still got to have Thanksgiving. 

We had two separate tables. One for my crew and one for the other four. We had my crew at one table because I work with 140 or so appointments per week, my son goes to a high infection rate college, and my daughter goes to junior high with over 1,000 kids every day. So, my crew was the wildcard in that crowd. So we sat separated just a bit to be sure we were protecting the others from any asymptomatic hoo ha.  It seemed to work very well. Again, I hope you all did well and stayed safe and happy and healthy.

It was different for sure, right? Definitely one to remember. No doubt.

Think of all of the things we took for granted before this mess. I know many of you have but I haven’t taken a trip or vacation or anything since February when we went to Key Largo.  I’m used to going on little vacays about once per quarter just to preserve my sanity. I think that’s important. Getting out of the office and getting some sea air or some mountain air in your face.

But we haven’t been able to do any of that in the last 9 to 10 months and I’m missing it. I’m a traveler.  This has really taught us what we do and what we do not have control over. We do not have control over nature from what I can tell. Certainly not this virus. At least not yet we don’t.  This second spike has been severe where I live. Over 1,000 new cases in one day on the last count, over 750 FEMA staffers here helping our healthcare system keep up with the hospitalized patients. I haven’t seen this week’s numbers yet but we lost 24 residents to COVID in just two days last week. 24 deaths in two days. That was unheard of just a couple of months ago. I have lost a couple of patients to it.

Fortunately, I haven’t lost any friends as of yet. I hope your friends are all staying safe and weathering the storm the same.  PRactice is just there. Nothing special going on right now. We are running a radio spot for this holiday season but I’m not sure how smart that is. Luckily, they gave us a killer deal on the run so we couldn’t resist. They made us a deal we couldn’t refuse. I’m not sure all of the ads in the world will get everyone out of the mental and financial funk any time in the next several months.  But I’ll report back. If it works, I’ll share what we did so you can do the same.

On the other hand, if you’re doing something that is working for your clinic and getting people back in the numbers you want to see, send me an email at [email protected] and let us know so we can let others know and help everyone out with getting their numbers back closer to normal. 

Item #1

Let’s start with one called “Medical Cannabis for the Management of Pain and Quality of Life in Chronic Pain Patients: A Prospective Observational Study” by Safakish, et. al. (Safakish R 2020) published in Pain Medicine in November of 2020. And it sizzles and steams as it sits.  

Why They Did It

To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of plant-based medical cannabis in a chronic pain population over the course of one year.

How They Did It

  • 751 chronic pain patients initiating medical cannabis treatment.
  • A longitudinal, prospective, 12-month observational study.
  • Study participants completed the Brief Pain Inventory and the 12-item Short Form Survey (SF-12), as well as surveys on opioid medication use and adverse events, at baseline and once a month for 12 months.

What They Found

  • Medical cannabis treatment was associated with improvements in pain severity and interference (P < 0.001) observed at one month and maintained over the 12-month observation period.
  • Significant improvements were also observed in the SF-12 physical and mental health domains (P < 0.002) starting at three months.
  • Significant decreases in headaches, fatigue, anxiety, and nausea were observed after initiation of treatment
  • In patients who reported opioid medication use at baseline, there were significant reductions in oral morphine equivalent doses (P < 0.0001), while correlates of pain were significantly improved by the end of the study observation period.

Wrap It Up

Taken together, the findings of this study add to the cumulative evidence in support of plant-based medical cannabis as a safe and effective treatment option and potential opioid medication substitute or augmentation therapy for the management of symptoms and quality of life in chronic pain patients. Alright, I’ll be upfront; I don’t like marijuana. I know some of you love the sweet sweet weed. I’ll never understand it. Trust me, I’ve been around it so many times I can’t count. I’m a former traveling muscian. For 10 years I traveled the circuit so you can only imagine.  I’ve been against its legalization from Day 1.

I’ve seen it turn famiily members into lazy, unmotivated bums. I hate it. I hate the smell. I hate what it does to people and I hate the culture surrounding it.  But, I can’t argue with research and this says it helps. I’ve seen other reports that it works. Regardless, I’m for pill form, chewables, or gels. I will never before inhaling it. There is no amount of evidence on the planet that will make me think it’s OK to take smoke into your lungs. Especially when there are other options for it’s utilization.  So, this is encouraging.

I hope its medical use becomes more widespread and more common because it sure as hell looks like it works for chronic pain and, at the end of the day, that’s what we’re here for. 

CHIROUP ADVERTISEMENT

Item #2 This second one is called, “Association of Daily Step Count and Step Intensity With Mortality Among US Adults” by Saint-Maurice et. al. (Saint-Maurice P 2020) and published in JAMA in March of 2020. Dammit it’s hot enough. 

Why They Did It

Describe the dose-response relationship between step count and intensity and mortality.

How They Did It

  • Representative sample of US adults aged at least 40 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who wore an accelerometer for up to 7 days ( from 2003-2006). 
  • Mortality was ascertained through December 2015.
  • Accelerometer-measured number of steps per day and 3 step intensity measures 
  • Accelerometer data were based on measurements obtained during a 7-day period at baseline.
  • They adjusted for for age; sex; race/ethnicity; education; diet; smoking status; body mass index; self-reported health; mobility limitations; and diagnoses of diabetes, stroke, heart disease, heart failure, cancer, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.

Wrap It Up

Based on a representative sample of US adults, a greater number of daily steps was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality. There was no significant association between step intensity and mortality after adjusting for total steps per day. I personally found it interesting that they found no big association between step intensity and mortality. Very interesting. So, let’s make sure we’re all moving. No matter the age. 

Item #3

This one is an article by Rupert Steiner(Steiner R 2020) called “Vegans and non–meat eaters are more likely to suffer broken bones, Oxford University research show” and it was published in Market Watch on November 24, 2020 and it’s it’s hotter than the burning sun!

  • We just hit the highlights for the articles so here we go:
  • They start right off getting into the meat and taters by saying, “Non–meat eaters, especially vegans, are at higher risk of breaking their bones due to lower intakes of calcium and protein, according to new research by the University of Oxford published on Monday
  • The EPIC-Oxford study, which involved almost 55,000 British people, concluded: “Non–meat eaters, especially vegans, had higher risks of either total or some site-specific fractures, particularly hip fractures
  • Participants were categorized into four diet groups composed of 29,380 meat eaters, 8,037 fish eaters, 15,499 vegetarians and 1,982 vegans.
  • The results showed over an average of 17.6 years of follow-up, researchers observed 3,941 cases of total fractures.

Food for thought and the damn pun was absolutely intended. Alright, that’s it. Y’all be safe. Keep changing our profession from your little corner of the world. Keep taking care of yourselves and everyone around you. Tough times are upon us but, the sun will shine again. Trust it, believe it, count on it. Let’s get to the message. Same as it is every week.  Store Remember the evidence-informed brochures and posters at chiropracticforward.com.   

Chiropractic evidence-based products

Integrating Chiropractors

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This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2018-07-12-at-10.23.09-AM-150x55.jpg

The Message I want you to know with absolute certainty that when Chiropractic is at its best, you can’t beat the risk vs reward ratio because spinal pain is primarily a movement-related pain and typically responds better to movement-related treatment rather than chemical treatments like pills and shots. When compared to the traditional medical model, research and clinical experience show us patients can get good to excellent results for headaches, neck pain, back pain, and joint pain to name just a few.

It’s safe and cost-effective can decrease surgeries & disability and we do it through conservative, non-surgical means with minimal hassle to the patient. And, if the patient treats preventativly after initial recovery, we can usually keep it that way while raising the overall level of health!

Key Point: At the end of the day, patients should have the guarantee of having the best treatment that offers the least harm. When it comes to non-complicated musculoskeletal complaints…. That’s Chiropractic!

Contact Send us an email at dr dot williams at chiropracticforward.com and let us know what you think of our show and tell us your suggestions for future episodes.  Feedback and constructive criticism is a blessing and so are subscribes and excellent reviews on podcast platforms.  We know how this works by now. If you value something, you have to share it, interact with it, review it, talk about it from time to time, and actively hit a few buttons to support it here and there when asked. It really does make a big difference. 

Connect We can’t wait to connect with you again next week. From the Chiropractic Forward Podcast flight deck, this is Dr. Jeff Williams saying upward, onward, and forward.

Website https://www.chiropracticforward.com

Social Media Links https://www.facebook.com/chiropracticforward/

Chiropractic Forward Podcast Facebook GROUP https://www.facebook.com/groups/1938461399501889/ Twitter https://twitter.com/Chiro_Forward

YouTube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtc-IrhlK19hWlhaOGld76Q

iTunes https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing/id1331554445?mt=2

Player FM Link https://player.fm/series/2291021

Stitcher: https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing-through

TuneIn https://tunein.com/podcasts/Health–Wellness-Podcasts/The-Chiropractic-Forward-Podcast-Chiropractors-Pr-p1089415/

About the Author & Host Dr. Jeff Williams – Fellow of the International Academy of Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine – Chiropractor in Amarillo, TX, Chiropractic Advocate, Author, Entrepreneur, Educator, Businessman, Marketer, and Healthcare Blogger & Vlogger    

Bibliography

  • Safakish R, K. G., Salimpour V, Hendin B, Shoanpal I, (2020). “Medical Cannabis for the Management of Pain and Quality of Life in Chronic Pain Patients: A Prospective Observational Study.” Pain Med 21(11): 3073-3086.
  • Saint-Maurice P, T. R., Bassett D, (2020). “Association of Daily Step Count and Step Intensity With Mortality Among US Adults.” JAMA 323(12): 1151-1160.
  • Steiner R (2020). “Vegans and non–meat eaters are more likely to suffer broken bones, Oxford University research show.” MarketWatch.