CF 181: NSAIDS And GI Events & Chronic Pain In The VA System
Today we’re going to talk about NSAIDS and their relation to GI events and then we’ll talk about how primaries are handling things within the VA system for their chronic pain veterans here in the US. But first, here’s that sweet sweet bumper music OK, we are back and you have found the Chiropractic Forward Podcast where we are making evidence-based chiropractic fun, profitable, and accessible while we make you and your patients better all the way around. We’re the fun kind of research. Not the stuffy, high-brow kind of research. We’re research talk over a couple of beers. I’m Dr. Jeff Williams and I’m your host for the Chiropractic Forward podcast. If you haven’t yet I have a few things you should do.
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You have found yourself smack dab in the middle of Episode #181 Now if you missed last week’s episode, we talked about Sitting on your butt and what that’ll get you and we talked about catastrophizing MRI results. Both for the practitioner as well as the patient. Make sure you don’t miss that info. Keep up with the class.On the personal end of things….. New Orleans was great. We stayed a little longer than we normally do but it was good. They acted like it’s been a bit of a ghost town down there since COVID came along. Restaurants were still closed and some of the ones open were understaffed. The door guy at our hotel was trying to hire our Uber driver today on the way to the airport. Life is getting there but it is most definitely not back to normal and business as usual just yet. We’ll get there though. Priorities. Let’s talk briefly about if. Here’s some honest talk about what ‘I didn’t have the time” really truly means. This is actually a blog I just wrote for my personal website but it’ll work for you as a chiropractor and business owner as well. We all seem to be short on time, don’t we? Emails, notifications, pings, bells, chimes, and phone calls just to name a few. It seems that we are always on call and expected to respond. That goes for our actual jobs but it goes for our personal lives too. Social media alerts alone are enough to make a person lose it. So when someone says, “You know, I just didn’t have the time,” you want to believe them. Because it makes sense. Life has just gotten very busy and more complicated than it has ever been before. Weren’t computers and technology supposed to make our lives easier? But then you remember that people still make time to go to the movies. They make time to go out to eat. They make time go to the park with their kid. At least they should be! When it comes to observing my own kids, they make time for friends, sitting around on their phones, or lounging and watching TV. Time is available. It may be in short supply for some of us, but it is most definitely available. I heard a saying once that went like this, “Saying that you didn’t have time to do something is just a less abrasive way of saying that it wasn’t a priority.” That hit me between the eyes. Because it’s so very true. I’ve seen this in my kids’ and acquaintances’ actions and I’ve seen it in my own actions. When I’m interested in something and when I really want it, I can typically make it happen. Because it’s a priority. It’s a focus and our focus goes where energy flows. Or something like that I’m sure came from Tony Robbins. When I want to get better at one of my hobbies, I obsess a little about it and I make the time for it. The point is, when it’s important, we make it a priority and we make the time. We get it done. Stop using a lack of time as an excuse to not get the things done you know need to be done. Maybe it’s marketing. Maybe it’s calling that one attorney you need to speak with but don’t really really want to speak with. Maybe it’s going to a Chamber of Commerce event. Maybe it’s writing that blog or starting that podcast you’ve wanted to start for a while. Make it a priority. Make the time. Item #1 This first one is called “A Retrospective Database Study of Gastrointestinal Events and Medical Costs Associated with Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Japanese Patients of Working Age with Osteoarthritis and Chronic Low Back Pain” by Kikuchi et. al.  and published in Pain Medicine in May of 2021. Hot stuff, coming up.Why They Did It The authors say the reason for the paper is that the real-world burden of gastrointestinal (GI) events associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Japanese patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or chronic low back pain (CLBP) remains unreported. How They Did It
Used the Japanese Medical Data Center database to retrospectively evaluate anonymized claims data of medical insurance beneficiaries employed by middle- to large-size Japanese companies who were prescribed NSAIDs for OA and/or CLBP between 2009 and 2018.
180,371 patients were included in the analysis
32.9% had OA
53.8% had CLBP
13.4% had both OA and CLBP
NSAIDs were administered as first-line analgesics to 161,152 (89.3%) of the patients in the sample
What They Found
The incidence of GI events was 9.97 per 10,000 person-years
The risk of developing GI events was high in elderly patients and patients with comorbidities and remained similar for patients receiving oral vs. topical NSAIDs
Longer treatment duration and consistent NSAID use increased the risk of GI events
Wrap It Up NSAID-associated GI toxicity imposes a significant health and economic burden on patients with OA and/or CLBP, irrespective of whether oral or topical NSAIDs are used. Well, that’s what it’s about isn’t it? It’s about getting people well without the use of drugs or surgery if possible. I’m not advocating never using medicine. Medicine is vital to our health and our lives but let’s don’t pretend they don’t have consequences. They do. Even the mild ones. CHIROUP ADVERTISEMENT Item #2 Our last item today is called “Barriers to and Facilitators of Multimodal Chronic Pain Care for Veterans: A National Qualitative Study” by Leonard et. al.  and published in Pain Med on September 24, 2020 and that’s just hot enough! Why They Did It Chronic pain is more common among veterans than among the general population. Expert guidelines recommend multimodal chronic pain care. However, there is substantial variation in the availability and utilization of treatment modalities in the Veterans Health Administration. We explored health care providers’ and administrators’ perspectives on the barriers to and facilitators of multimodal chronic pain care in the Veterans Health Administration to understand variation in the use of multimodal pain treatment modalities. How They Did It
They conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with health care providers and administrators at a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities that were classified as either early or late adopters of multimodal chronic pain care according to their utilization of nine pain-related treatments.
Interviews were conducted by telephone, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed through the use of team-based inductive and deductive content analysis.
They interviewed 49 participants from 25 facilities from April through September of 2017
What They Found
They identified three themes
First, the Veterans Health Administration’s integrated health care system is both an asset and a challenge for multimodal chronic pain care
Second, participants discussed a temporal shift from managing chronic pain with opioids to multimodal treatment.
Third, primary care teams face competing pressures from expert guidelines, facility leadership, and patients.
Wrap It Up Health care providers often perceive inadequate support and resources to provide multimodal chronic pain management. Efforts to improve chronic pain management should address both organizational and patient-level challenges, including primary care provider panel sizes, accessibility of training for primary care teams, leadership support for multimodal pain care, and availability of multidisciplinary pain management resources. I know where we fit in. IF they’re using an evidence based, patient-centered chiropractor in the mix, their patients are getting off of the pharmaceuticals, they’re sleeping better, they’re not thinking of suicide as much, and they’re beginning to become a part of their lives again. I see it all of the time because we see veterans straight from the VA. You’re getting it from he horse’s mouth. We make such a difference in these people’s lives. But we still battle that BS all of the time don’t we? No matter how good you try to be, you still have that jackass primary somewhere inside the system spoiling the water. Locker room poison. Just bashing chiropractors when they don’t have any experience themselves regarding the things they’re saying. Keep trudging though. If we were wrong, we’d have been eliminated generations ago. Alright, that’s it. Y’all be safe. Keep changing our profession from your little corner of the world. Keep taking care of yourselves and everyone around you. Tough times are upon us but, the sun will shine again. Trust it, believe it, count on it. Let’s get to the message. Same as it is every week.Store Remember the evidence-informed brochures and posters at chiropracticforward.com.The Message I want you to know with absolute certainty that when Chiropractic is at its best, you can’t beat the risk vs reward ratio because spinal pain is primarily a movement-related pain and typically responds better to movement-related treatment rather than chemical treatments like pills and shots. When compared to the traditional medical model, research and clinical experience show us patients can get good to excellent results for headaches, neck pain, back pain, and joint pain to name just a few. It’s safe and cost-effective can decrease surgeries & disability and we do it through conservative, non-surgical means with minimal hassle to the patient. And, if the patient treats preventatively after initial recovery, we can usually keep it that way while raising the overall level of health! Key Point: At the end of the day, patients should have the guarantee of having the best treatment that offers the least harm. When it comes to non-complicated musculoskeletal complaints…. That’s Chiropractic! Contact Send us an email at dr dot williams at chiropracticforward.com and let us know what you think of our show and tell us your suggestions for future episodes. Feedback and constructive criticism is a blessing and so are subscribes and excellent reviews on podcast platforms. We know how this works by now. If you value something, you have to share it, interact with it, review it, talk about it from time to time, and actively hit a few buttons to support it here and there when asked. It really does make a big difference.Connect We can’t wait to connect with you again next week. From the Chiropractic Forward Podcast flight deck, this is Dr. Jeff Williams saying upward, onward, and forward. Website
Social Media Links https://www.facebook.com/chiropracticforward/ Chiropractic Forward Podcast Facebook GROUP https://www.facebook.com/groups/1938461399501889/ TwitterTweets by Chiro_ForwardYouTube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtc-IrhlK19hWlhaOGld76Q iTunes https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing/id1331554445?mt=2 Player FM Link https://player.fm/series/2291021 Stitcher: https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-chiropractic-forward-podcast-chiropractors-practicing-through TuneIn https://tunein.com/podcasts/Health–Wellness-Podcasts/The-Chiropractic-Forward-Podcast-Chiropractors-Pr-p1089415/ About the Author & Host Dr. Jeff Williams – Fellow of the International Academy of Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine – Chiropractor in Amarillo, TX, Chiropractic Advocate, Author, Entrepreneur, Educator, Businessman, Marketer, and Healthcare Blogger & Vlogger Bibliography 1. Shogo Kikuchi, M., PhD, Kanae Togo, PhD, Nozomi Ebata, Koichi Fujii, MD, PhD, MBA, Naohiro Yonemoto, PhD, Lucy Abraham, MSc, CPsychol, Takayuki Katsuno, MD, PhD,, A Retrospective Database Study of Gastrointestinal Events and Medical Costs Associated with Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Japanese Patients of Working Age with Osteoarthritis and Chronic Low Back Pain. Pain Med. 22(5): p. 1029-1038. 2. Chelsea Leonard, P., Roman Ayele, PhD, MPH, Amy Ladebue, BA, Marina McCreight, MPH, Charlotte Nolan, MPA, Friedhelm Sandbrink, MD, Joseph W Frank, MD, MPH,, Barriers to and Facilitators of Multimodal Chronic Pain Care for Veterans: A National Qualitative Study. Pain Med, 2020. 22(5): p. 1167-1173.
CF 128: Tylenol Fails For Back Pain, Cervical Disc Research, & CAM For Headache/Migraine Today we’re going to talk about Tylenol Fails For Back Pain, Cervical Disc Research, & complementary and alternative medicine For Headache/Migraine But first, here’s that sweet sweet bumper music
OK, we are back and you have found the Chiropractic Forward Podcast where we are making evidence-based chiropractic fun, profitable, and accessible while we make you and your patients better all the way around. We’re the fun kind of research. Not the stuffy, high-brow kind of research. We’re research talk over a couple of beers. I’m Dr. Jeff Williams and I’m your host for the Chiropractic Forward podcast. If you haven’t yet I have a few things you should do.
Like our facebook page,
Join our private facebook group and interact, and then
go review our podcast on iTunes and other podcast platforms.
While you’re there, join our weekly email newsletter. No spam, just a reminder when the newest episodes go live. Nothing special so don’t worry about signing up. Just one a week friends. Check your JUNK folder!!
Do it do it do it.
You have found yourself smack dab in the middle of Episode #128 Now if you missed last week’s episode, we were joined on the show by Dr. William Morgan. You wanna hear a truly impressive individual speak and share, this is one of those episodes, my friends. I wouldn’t steer you the wrong way. Go to last week’s episode and give it a listen. We talked about all kinds of good stuff, we talked about excellence, we talked about Parker, we talked about chiropractic in general and Dr. Morgan shared some experiences with us about treating the President of the United States of America. Wow. Make sure you don’t miss that info. Keep up with the class.
While we’re on the topic of being smart, did you know that you can use our website as a resource? Quick and easy, you can go to chiropracticforward.com, click on Episodes, and use the search function to find whatever you want quickly and easily. With over 100 episodes in the tank and an average of 2-3 papers covered per episode, we have somewhere between 250 and 300 papers that can be quickly referenced along with their talking points. Just so you know, all of the research we talk about in each episode is cited in the show notes for each episode if you’re looking to dive in a little deeper.
On the personal end of things….. I don’t know how long I’ve been back full force now but it’s been some time. As with anything, you start to adopt new procedures and then those new things become a habit and hardly even noticeable anymore. I see chiros asking what others are wearing. Some don’t take COVID seriously so they don’t wear anything, to be honest. They just wash hands as if washing your hands takes it out of the air or prevents the coughing from putting it out there for you to breathe.I wear a mask. I wear glasses so I just wear them for any eye cover. Who knows if that even matters? It probably doesn’t. I wear gloves. Not because I’m afraid to touch anyone. I started out without gloves but the sanitizer and soap washing all of the time ate my hands up. Bad. So, gloves have solved that problem for me.
Maybe I just need some new soap and I can go back to no gloves. Now after some unfortunate interactions on Facebook I’m stepping up onto my soapbox for a good old fashioned rant and, when I’m done, I hope we can still be friends.The more interactions with people I have, even a select few supposedly educated chiropractors, the more I’m aware of how uneducated people can truly be.
How can you confuse the mask issue? Yes, in the beginning, they said masks weren’t useful. Back when they were trying to prevent a run on N95 masks so the hospitals could have them available. But for months now, they have recommended them for everyone when social distancing cannot be avoided. AKA; a chiropractor’s office. Their latest update reiterates it. The best guess estimates are that 40% of COVID cases were due to a ‘healthy’ asymptomatic spreading it. They also just said last week that up to 35% of positives were in completely asymptomatic cases. That’s excellent news!! That means that a little over 1/3 of people that get it do extremely well and never even know they have it. That’s amazing. The problem is that that 1/3 is responsible for 40% of the cases because they don’t know they have it and are spreading it.
Following a 2.5 hour choir practice attended by 61 persons, including a symptomatic, 32 confirmed and 20 probably secondary COVID cases occurred. If you’re counting, that’s 52 of the 61 members of the choir. 3 patients were hospitalized and 2 died. The transmission was likely facilitated by close proximity during practice and augmented by the act of singing. Alright, now, let’s talk about the bus. In short, scientists in China studied a guy in China who passed it on to 13 others.
On the bus, his germs jumped as far as 4.5 meters to other travelers and it lingered in the air for up to 30 minutes after the guy got off of the bus. 4.5 meters for us Americanos is almost 15 feet. Now, let’s talk about a new paper that came out on May 13 so it’s recent news.
This paper was in the journal called Respiratory Medicine by Gao, et. al.(Gao M 2020) called ‘A study on infectivity of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers’. This paper follows a case of an asymptomatic spreader and 455 contact encounters to try to assess the infectivity of asymptomatic carriers. The 455 contacts wore masks, the test subject wore masks. and nobody got sick. They didn’t give COVID to any of the 455. And all wore masks. This included family members. Medical Express posted an article on May 17th about some research out of Hong Kong where they tested a masking mechanism with hamsters. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-hamster-masks-coronavirus-scientists.html
The research by the University of Hong Kong is some of the first to specifically investigate whether masks can stop symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers from infecting others. They placed hamsters that were artificially infected with the disease next to healthy animals. Surgical masks were placed between the two cages with airflow traveling from the infected animals to the healthy ones. The researchers found non-contact transmission of the virus could be reduced by more than 75 percent when the masks were used. Two-thirds of the healthy hamsters were infected within a week if no masks were applied. Not only that but, those that did become infected were also found to have less of the virus within their bodies than those infected without a mask. The most effective use of the masks was when the person wearing the mask was the infected one.
The problem with that is that nobody knows who is infected because up to 35% of people infected don’t have any symptoms or feel sick. So, you can pass it up to 15 feet away, you can be in close proximity to 61 others and give it to 52 of them, or we can all wear masks and mostly avoid giving it to anybody. Hmmm. Let me do the math, carry the three….and….yep, I’ll wear masks for a little while.
A mask is a small ask, people. That’s the new slogan. Just give me credit. That’s all I ask. If you don’t require masks in your office as the CDC recommends right now, you’re putting yourself, your staff, and your immunocompromised patients at risk. You can wash your hands until the skin falls off and think you’re protecting everyone and doing a good job but you’re not taking it out of the air.
The Czechoslovakian government got it right in their slogan, “My mask protects you and yours protects me.”
No, it’s not the damn flu. While the CDC’s latest updates have a lot of good news in it, it’s still clear it’s not the damn flu. If you claim it is, you are simply not very educated on it and you’re probably doing your patients a disservice by saying that it is. COVID is estimated to have a .4 mortality rate. Flu is estimated at .1 so COVID is FOUR TIMES as deadly. We see that day to day because, in a BAD flu year, between 60k to 80k people die of it. IN A YEAR.
COVID has killed over 100,000 Americans in just about 3 months or so. It’s not the same as the damn flu. But, 0.4% is waaaayyy better than it was initially thought. Some other current news from Reuters out of Italy is that it is losing its potency. Meaning, it may have mutated to a less deadly version. That’s awesome news.
In the beginning, I was worried and stressed and anxious. We all were. It was brand new and nobody knew anything about it. Not even the experts. Hell, when AIDS was brand new, the fear was that mosquitos could infect you. Then we learned more and then we were safer. As more and more is known about this virus, I’m no longer as worried for myself or my family or even most of my patients. The newest CDC guesstimates show that 96.6% of COVID patients never even have to go to the hospital. That’s a pretty great stat right there.
However, I AM afraid for my mother. I AM afraid for my Dad who is in a nursing home. I AM afraid for my other family member who is immunocompromised. I AM afraid for my patients that are immunocompromised. I AM going to continue to be safe and be smart for those people. Not out of fear but out of an abundance of education and because it’s not the flu. I hope you’re doing the same.
While there’s a 96.6% chance none of us ever have to go to the hospital because of it, there’s a 100% chance I’d have to close my office for a bit. I don’t know about you but I can’t afford that. This podcasting gig doesn’t pay anything so I guess I need to mind my p’s and q’s and be smart about my day to day bidniz.
I know several that say but, but, but….what about….but. All that crap is noise. Uneducated, noise tinged with a healthy dose of arrogance. It really is OK to follow science and evidence. We’ve been preaching it for 3 years now. Why would COVID change that?
Let science guide you. Not Bill Gates, Trump, or Pelosi. What does the science say? Stop listening to Fox and CNN. What does the science say? Stop listening to conservative or Liberal talk show hosts. What does the science say? Stop listening to Uncle Roy, the ranch manager or the warehouse worker. What does the science say? As far as that goes, stop listening to the physician on the hospital steps spouting politically biased crap and tying it into a COVID talk. Who the hell cares? What does the damn science say?
Keep it simple. Don’t let things confuse the topic. How severe, how easily spread, how can you avoid spreading or catching? Simple crap here.
The rest of those people are uneducated and arrogant noise. Noise I tuned out over a month ago.
Alright, rant over.
Item #1 Our first Item this week is called “Efficacy and safety of Paracetamol for Spinal Pain and Osteoarthritis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo Controlled Trials” by Machado, et. al(Machado G 2015). and published in British Medical Journal in March of 2015.
Why They Did It They wanted to investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol (acetaminophen) aka Tylenol… in the management of spinal pain and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee.
How They Did It
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to December 2014.
Paper considered for inclusion were all randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of paracetamol with placebo for spinal pain (neck or low back pain) and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee.
13 randomised trials were included
What They Found
There was “high quality” evidence that paracetamol is ineffective for reducing pain intensity and disability or improving quality of life in the short term in people with low back pain.
For hip or knee osteoarthritis there was “high quality” evidence that paracetamol provides a significant, although not clinically important, effect on pain and disability in the short term.
“High quality” evidence showed that patients taking paracetamol are nearly four times more likely to have abnormal results on liver function tests
Wrap It Up “Paracetamol is ineffective in the treatment of low back pain and provides minimal short term benefit for people with osteoarthritis. These results support the reconsideration of recommendations to use paracetamol for patients with low back pain and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee in clinical practice guidelines.”
Item #2 This one is called “Relationship of Modic Changes, Disk Herniation Morphology, and Axial Location to Outcomes in Symptomatic Cervical Disk Herniation Patients Treated With High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Spinal Manipulation: A Prospective Study” by Kressig et. al(Kressig M 2016). and published in Journal of Manipulative Physiology and Therapeutics in October 2016.
Why They Did It The authors here wanted to evaluate whether cervical disc herniation (CDH) location, morphology, or Modic changes (MCs) are related to treatment outcomes.
How They Did It
(MRI) and outcome data from 44 patients with CDH treated with spinal manipulative therapy were evaluated
MRI scans were assessed for cervical disc hernation location, morphology, and modic changes
Pain and Neck Disability Index data were collected at baseline; 2 weeks; 1, 3, and 6 months; and then again at 1 year
Wrap It Up Although patients who were Modic positive had higher baseline NDI scores, the proportion of these patients improved was higher for all time points up to 6 months. Patients with Modic I changes did worse than patients with Modic II changes at only 2 weeks.
Item #3 Our last one is called, “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among US Adults With Headache or Migraine: Results From the 2012 National Health Interview Survey” by Zhang et. al(Zhang Y 2017). and was published in Headache journal in September of 2017.
Why They Did It They did this to answer the following questions: (1) Which complementary and alternative (CAM) modalities are used most frequently among migraine/headache sufferers? and (2) What are the self-reported reasons for CAM use among migraine/headache sufferers?
What They Found
The most frequently used CAM modality for headache/migraine was manipulative therapy at only 22%. Herbal supplementation was at 21.7% usage, and mind-body therapy was at 17.9%. The top 3 reasons given for using CAM for headaches were for general wellness, at about 28.7%, improving overall health at about 26.8%, and for reducing stress at about 16.7%. Although CAM is used by many sufferers of headaches and migraines, its use specifically for the headache or migraine is low in the US.
Alright, that’s it. Y’all be safe. Continue taking care of yourselves and taking care of your neighbors. Tough times are upon us but, the sun will shine again. Trust it, believe it, count on it. Let’s get to the message. Same as it is every week.
I want you to know with absolute certainty that when Chiropractic is at its best, you can’t beat the risk vs reward ratio because spinal pain is primarily a movement-related pain and typically responds better to movement-related treatment rather than chemical treatments like pills and shots.
When compared to the traditional medical model, research and clinical experience show us patients can get good to excellent results for headaches, neck pain, back pain, and joint pain to name just a few.
It’s safe and cost-effective can decrease surgeries & disability and we do it through conservative, non-surgical means with minimal hassle to the patient.
And, if the patient treats preventatively after initial recovery, we can usually keep it that way while raising the overall level of health!
At the end of the day, patients should have the guarantee of having the best treatment that offers the least harm. When it comes to non-complicated musculoskeletal complaints….
Send us an email at dr dot williams at chiropracticforward.com and let us know what you think of our show and tell us your suggestions for future episodes.
Feedback and constructive criticism is a blessing and so are subscribes and excellent reviews on podcast platforms.
We know how this works by now. If you value something, you have to share it, interact with it, review it, talk about it from time to time, and actively hit a few buttons to support it here and there when asked. It really does make a big difference.
We can’t wait to connect with you again next week. From the Chiropractic Forward Podcast flight deck, this is Dr. Jeff Williams saying upward, onward, and forward.
Dr. Jeff Williams – Chiropractor in Amarillo, TX, Chiropractic Advocate, Author, Entrepreneur, Educator, Businessman, Marketer, and Healthcare Blogger & VloggerBibliography
Gao M, Y. L. (2020). “A study on infectivity of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers.” Resp Med.
Hammer L, D. P., Capron I, Ross A, (2020). “High SARS-CoV-2 Attack Rate Following Exposure at a Choir Practice — Skagit County, Washington, March 2020.” CDC Weekly 69(19): 606-610.
Kressig M, P. C., McChurch K, Schmid C, (2016). “Relationship of Modic Changes, Disk Herniation Morphology, and Axial Location to Outcomes in Symptomatic Cervical Disk Herniation Patients Treated With High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Spinal Manipulation: A Prospective Study.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 39(8): 565-575.
Machado G, M. C., Ferreira P, Pinheiro M, (2015). “Efficacy and safety of Paracetamol for Spinal Pain and Osteoarthritis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo Controlled Trials.” BMJ 350(h1225).
Zhang Y (2017). “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among US Adults With Headache or Migraine: Results From the 2012 National Health Interview Survey.” Headache 57(8): 1228-1242.
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